Melanotan II (Melanotan 2) is a synthetically produced modification of a peptide hormone that’s naturally produced in your body and stimulates melanogenesis, which is a process that’s responsible for pigmentation of your skin. This peptide hormone, known as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or α-MSH, activates some melanocortin receptor while in the process of applying its effects.
Also, melanocyte-stimulating hormone exerts a potent influence over sexual libido, appetite and lipid metabolism. Consequently, Melanotan II has been proven in studies to exhibit libido-enhancing, appetite suppressant and lipolytic effect on top of promoting skin tanning.
It has been researched broadly for use protection against ultraviolet radiation harmful effect from sun’s rays due to its amazing melanogenesis-stimulating properties. Also, Melanotan II and a synthetically produced variant that’s similar (PT-141) have all been studied in detail as a potential treatment for sexual dysfunction (sexual malfunction, specifically male ED (erectile dysfunction).
Melanotan 2 Development
The initial synthetic Melanotan 2 peptide creation can all be credited to the UA (University of Arizona), a public research university. During the course of study aimed at developing a defence against skin cancer, the focus was put on developing a way of stimulating the natural melanin production in the skin, or natural melanogenesis, without direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, which are potentially harmful.
Initially, UA researchers tried directly administering the naturally occurring hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, to elicit the desired result. Although the strategy showed promising outcomes, it was discovered that this naturally occurring melanocyte-stimulating hormone had a prohibitively very short half-life for it to be considered of practical use as a curative remedy.
The positive results, however, gleaned from melanocyte-stimulating hormone administration encouraged more research into the Melanotan 1 plus Melanotan 2 development, which exhibits similar effects while possessing a half-life that’s extended for functional therapeutic utilisation.
Studies and Further Information of Melanotan 2
Melanotan and Melanotan II are all analogues of the peptide hormone α-MSH (α-melanocyte stimulating hormone) that tend to be inducing skin tanning. Melanotan 2, unlike Melanotan 1, has been proven to have aphrodisiac properties, which is the additional positive effect of increasing sex drive (libido). Melanotan II is a cyclic heptapeptide analogue of the α-MSH (α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).
Also, Melanotan 2 effects on the food intake and diet of the lab mice have been investigated. It’s been shown that Melanotan 2 has activated the MC (central melanocortin) when induced and fed to the mice. The 6-day treatment of Melanotan II has revealed that the peptide really reduced the adipose tissue and body weight in the mice’s viscera and suppressed the organism’s intake of calories.
That has indications in the clinical use of the possible treatment of reducing calorie or carbohydrate intake, especially for the obese and the overweight. Moreover, the same study showed that there was a continued increase in the available consumption of oxygen in animals that are obese.
Also, Melanotan II helped in reducing serum insulin level and the levels of cholesterol more than control treatments. Moreover, it’s been suggested that Melanotan II lowers acetylcholine (ACh) A carboxylase expression and also prevent palmitoltransferase I mRNA and carnitine reduction in muscle-type tissues through pair-feeding in the obese rats’ muscles. Furthermore, Melanotan II peptides indeed increased fat catabolism in muscles and also improved the cholesterol metabolism.
α-MSH Analogues (Melanotan Peptides)
α-MSH (α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) is an endogenous Melanotan peptide hormone that belongs to the melanocortin family and occurs naturally and regarded as the most important one of the MSH in melanogenesis stimulation, a process in mammals that’s responsible for skin and hair pigmentation.
Also, α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone plays a role in energy homeostasis, feeding behaviour and sexual activity (Melanotan 2 and Bremelanotide). α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is known to be a nonselective agonist of the melanocortin receptors MC5, MC4, MC3 and MC1. Melanotan 2 and Melanotan 1 activate the MC1 receptor, responsible for the effects on skin pigmentation.
PT-141 and Melanotan 2 stimulate the MC4 and MC3 receptors, both of which are responsible for regulating sexual behaviour, metabolism and appetite. However, PT-141 Bremelanotide doesn’t stimulate the MC1 receptor.
Several synthetic analogues of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone have been studied for their photoprotective effects against UV (ultraviolet) radiation from sunlight, namely afamelanotide (Melanotan) and Melanotan 2 (Melanotan II).
Bremelanotide, which is another analogue of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone similar to Melanotan II, is under development for sexual dysfunction treatment. All these Melanotan peptides have significantly higher potencies than α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, but with unique selectivity peptide profiles.
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